• Engineering

    • Vortex
    • Aeration
    • Volumetrics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences

    • Investigation
  • Chemical Engineering

    • Water
    • Acid
    • Oxidation Reaction
    • Potable Water


Fields of research

At the Graz University of Technology:

At the Wetsus Center of Sustainable Water Technology and University of Twente:


Preparation of Free-Surface Hyperbolic Water VorticesJournal of visualized experiments, 2023(197), Article e64516. Klymenko, R., Nanninga, H., de Kroon, E., Agostinho, L. L. F., Fuchs, E. C., Woisetschläger, J. & Hoeben, W. F. L. M.
Investigation of the effect of sustainable magnetic treatment on the microbiological communities in drinking waterEnvironmental Research, 213, Article 113638. Liu, X., Pollner, B., Paulitsch-Fuchs, A. H., Fuchs, E. C., Dyer, N. P., Loiskandl, W. & Lass-Flörl, C. Impeller-Based Aeration of GroundwaterWater (Switzerland), 14(5), Article 795, 795. van de Griend, M. V., Warrener, F., van den Akker, M., Song, Y., Fuchs, E. C., Loiskandl, W. & Agostinho, L. L. F. Oxygen Volumetric Mass Transfer in a Geometrically Constrained VortexWater (Switzerland), 14(5), Article 771. Agostinho, L. L. F., Pecnik, R., Woisetschläger, J., de Kroon, E., Şişcanu, N., van de Griend, M. V., Loiskandl, W. & Fuchs, E. C.

Other contributions

  • X. Liu, G. Zarfel, R. van der Wijden, W. Loiskandl, B. Bitschnau, I.J.T. Dinkla, E.C. Fuchs, A.H. Paulitsch-Fuchs,¬†Density-dependent microbial calcium carbonate precipitation by drinking water bacteria via amino acid metabolism and biosorption,¬†Water Research 202 (2021) 117444
  • E.C. Fuchs, J. Woisetschl√§ger, A.D. Wexler, R. Pecnik, G. Vitiello,¬†Electrically induced liquid-liquid phase transition in a floating water bridge identified by refractive index variations,¬†Water (MDPI) 13(5) (2021) 602
  • Astrid H. Paulitsch-Fuchs, Natalia Stanulewicz, Bernhard Pollner, Nigel Dyer, Elmar C. Fuchs,Strong gradients in weak magnetic fields affect the long-term biological activity of tap water,¬†Water (Seattle) 12 (2021) 28-45
  • Adam D. Wexler, Jakob Woisetschl√§ger, Ursula Reiter, Gert Reiter, Michael Fuchsj√§ger, Elmar C. Fuchs, Lothar Brecker,¬†Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Mapping of Spin Relaxation in Electrically Stressed Glycerol,¬†ACS Omega 5 (2020) 22057-22070
  • Gerwin W. Steen, Adam D. Wexler, Elmar C. Fuchs, Herman L. Offerhaus, Gerwin W. Steen, Adam D. Wexler, Elmar C. Fuchs, Herman L. Offerhaus,¬†A First Step towards Determining the Ionic Content in Water with an Integrated Optofluidic Chip Based on Near-Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy,MDPI Optics¬†1(2) (2020), 175-190
  • M. van de Griend, E.C. Fuchs, L.L.F. Agostinho, N. Dyer, W. Loiskandl,¬†Consequences of the integration of a hyperbolic showerhead for droplets, jet break-up and physical-chemical parameters, MDPI Water¬†11¬†(2019) 2446
  • E.C. Fuchs, G. Oudakker, M. Justinek, N. Dyer, J. Woisetschl√§ger, K. Godines, M. M√§der, F.T. Freund,¬†Solar eclipses and the Surface Properties of Water,¬†Earth, Moon, and Planets¬†123¬†(2019) 15-43
  • A.D. Wexler, E.C. Fuchs, J. Woisetschl√§ger, G. Vitiello,¬†Electrically induced liquid-liquid phase transition in water at room temperature,PCCP¬†21¬†(2019) 18541-18550
  • E.C. Fuchs, D. Yntema, J. Woisetschl√§ger,¬†Raman spectroscopy and shadowgraph visualization of excess protons in high-voltage electrolysis of pure water,¬†J. Phys.¬†D: Appl. Phys¬†52¬†(2019) 365302
  • G.W. Steen, A.D. Wexler, E.C. Fuchs, H.A. Bakker, P.D. Nguyen, H.L. Offerhaus,¬†Role of temperature in de-mixing absorbance spectra composed of compound electrolyte solutions,¬†Appl. Opt.¬†57¬†(2018) 1-7
  • G.W. Steen, E.C. Fuchs, A.D. Wexler, H.L. Offerhaus,¬†Design considerations to realize differential absorption based optofluidic sensors for determination of ionic content in water,¬†IEEE Sensors¬†18¬†(2018)¬†6051-6058
  • L.L.F. Agostinho, B.Bo, A.Kamau, S.P. Brouwer, E.C. Fuchs, J.C.M. Marijnissen,¬†Simple-jet mode electrosprays with water. Description, characterization and application in a single effect evaporation chamber,¬†J. Aerosol Sc.¬†125¬†(2018) 237-250
  • A.H. Paulitsch-Fuchs, A. Zsoh√°r, A.D. Wexler, A. Zauner, C. Kittinger, J. de Valen√ßa, E.C. Fuchs,¬†Behavioral study of selected microorganisms in an aqueous electrohydrodynamic liquid bridge,¬†Biochem.¬†Biophys. Rep 10 (2017) 287‚Äď296
  • A.D. Wexler, S. Drusov√°, E.C. Fuchs, J. Woisetschl√§ger, G. Reiter, M. Fuchsj√§ger, U. Reiter,¬†Magnetic resonance imaging of flow and mass transfer in electrohydrodynamic liquid bridges,J. Vis.¬†20¬†(2017) 97
  • A.D. Wexler, S. Drusov√°, J. Woisetschl√§ger and E.C. Fuchs,¬†Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and collective vibrational modes of liquid water in an inhomogeneous electric field,PCCP¬†18¬†(2016) 16281-16292
  • E.C. Fuchs, M. Sammer, A.D. Wexler, P. Kuntke, J. Woisetschl√§ger,¬†A floating water bridge produces water with excess charge,J. Phys.¬†D: Appl. Phys.¬†49¬†(2016) 125502
  • M. Sammer, C. Kamp, A.H. Paulitsch-Fuchs, A.D. Wexler, C.J.N. Buisman, E.C. Fuchs,¬†Strong Gradients in Weak Magnetic Fields Induce
    DOLLOP Formation in Tap Water,Water 8 (2016) 79
  • E.C. Fuchs, B. Bitschnau, A.D. Wexler, J. Woisetschl√§ger, F.T. Freund,¬†A Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Study of the Dynamics of Electrically Constrained Water,J. Phys.¬†Chem. B¬†119¬†(52) (2015) 15892‚Äď15900
  • M. Sammer, A.D. Wexler, P. Kuntke, H. Wiltsche, N. Stanulewicz, E. Lankmayr, J. Woisetschl√§ger, E.C. Fuchs,¬†Proton production, neutralisation and reduction in a floating water bridge,¬†J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys¬†48¬†(2015) 415501
  • G.W. Steen, E.C. Fuchs, A.D. Wexler, H.L. Offerhaus,¬†Identification and quantification of 16 inorganic ions in water by Gaussian curve fitting of near-infrared difference absorbance spectra,¬†Appl. Opt.¬†54¬†(2015) 1‚Äď6
  • M. Sammer, B. Laarhoven, E. Mejias, D. Yntema, E.C. Fuchs, G. Holler, G. Brasseur, E. Lankmayr,¬†Biomass measurement of living¬†Lumbriculus variegatus¬†with impedance spectroscopy,¬†J Electr Bioimp.¬†5¬†(2014) 92‚Äď98
  • A. D. Wexler,¬†M. L√≥pez S√°enz,¬†O. Schreer,¬†J. Woisetschl√§ger,¬†E.C. Fuchs,¬†The Preparation of Electrohydrodynamic Bridges from Polar Dielectric Liquids,¬†J. Vis. Exp.¬†91, e51819 (*)
  • E.C. Fuchs, A.D. Wexler, A.H. Paulitsch-Fuchs, L.L.F. Agostinho, D. Yntema and J. Woisetschl√§ger,¬†The Armstrong Experiment Revisited,¬†Eur. J. Phys.¬†Special Topics¬†223¬†(2014) 959-977 (*)
  • L.L.F. Agostinho, C. U. Yurteri, J. Wartena, S. P. Brouwer, E.C. Fuchs, J.C.M. Marijnissen,¬†Insulated multinozzle system for electrohydrodynamic atomization in the simple-jet mode,¬†Appl.¬†Phys. Let.¬†102¬†(2013) 194103
  • L.L.F. Agostinho, G. Tamminga, C.U. Yurteri, S.P. Brouwer, E.C. Fuchs, J.C.M. Marijnissen,¬†Morphology of water electrosprays in the simple-jet mode,¬†Phys. Rev. E¬†86¬†(2012) 066317
  • E.C. Fuchs, A. Cherukupally, A.H. Paulitsch-Fuchs, L.L.F. Agostinho, A.D. Wexler, J. Woisetschl√§ger and F.T. Freund,¬†Investigation of the Mid-Infrared Emission of a Floating Water Bridge,¬†J. Phys.¬†D: Appl. Phys.¬†45¬†(2012) 475401
  • L.L.F. Agostinho, C. Yurteri, E.C. Fuchs and J.C.M. Marijnissen,¬†Monodisperse water microdroplets generated by electrohydrodynamic atomization in the simple-jet mode,¬†Appl.¬†Phys. Let.¬†100¬†(2012) 244105
  • A.H. Paulitsch-Fuchs, E. C. Fuchs, A.D. Wexler, F.T. Freund, L.J. Rothschild, A. Cherukupally and G.-J. W. Euverink,¬†Prokaryotic transport in electrohydrodynamic structures,¬†Phys. Biol.¬†9¬†(2012) 026006 (11pp)
  • J. Woisetschl√§ger, A. D. Wexler, G. Holler, M. Eisenhut, K. Gatterer, E. C. Fuchs,¬†Horizontal bridges in polar dielectric liquids,¬†Exp. Fluids¬†52¬†(2012) 193-205
  • E.C. Fuchs, A.D. Wexler, L.L.F. Agostinho, M. Ramek, J. Woisetschl√§ger,¬†Methanol, Ethanol and Propanol in EHD liquid bridging,¬†J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 329 (2011) 012003
  • L. Piatkowski, A.D. Wexler, E.C. Fuchs, H. Schoenmaker, H.J. Bakker,¬†Ultrafast vibrational energy relaxation of the water bridge,PCCP¬†14¬†(2012) 6160-6164
  • E.C. Fuchs, B. Bitschnau, S. Di Fonzo, A. Gessini, J. Woisetschl√§ger, F. Bencivenga,¬†Inelastic UV Scattering in a Floating Water Bridge,¬†J. Phys. Sc.¬†Appl.¬†1¬†(2011) 135-147 (*)
  • M. Sammer, C. Kamp, D. Yntema, M. Horner, E.C. Fuchs, G. Holler, J. Woisetschl√§ger, E. Lankmayr,¬†The Bioscope System - Testing and validating a novel sensor for aqueous solutions,¬†J. Water Chem.¬†Tech.¬†33¬†(2011) 369-376
  • L.L.F. Agostinho, E.C. Fuchs, S.J. Metz, C.U. Yuteri, J.C. Marijnissen,¬†Reverse movement and coalescence of water microdroplets in electrohydrodynamic atomization,¬†Phys.¬†Rev.. E¬†84¬†(2011) 026317 (12pp)
  • M. Eisenhut, X. Guo, A.H. Paulitsch-Fuchs, E.C. Fuchs,¬†Aqueous Phenol and Ethylene Glycol Solutions in Electrohydrodynamic Liquid Bridging,¬†Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 9(3) (2011) 391-403¬†(*)
  • E.C. Fuchs, L.L.F. Agostinho, A. Wexler, R.M. Wagterveld, J. Tuinstra, J. Woisetschl√§ger,¬†The behavior of a floating water bridge under reduced gravity conditions,¬†J. Phys.¬†D: Appl. Phys¬†44¬†(2011) 025501 (8pp)
  • E.C. Fuchs, L.L.F. Agostinho, M. Eisenhut, J. Woisetschl√§ger,¬†Mass and charge transfer within a floating water bridge,¬†Proc.¬†SPIE¬†7376¬†(2010) 73761E1-15
  • E.C. Fuchs,¬†Can a Century Old Experiment Reveal Hidden Properties of Water?,¬†Water (MDPI)¬†2(3) (2010) 381-410 (*)
  • E. Del Giudice, E.C. Fuchs, G. Vitiello,¬†Collective Molecular Dynamics of a Floating Water Bridge,¬†Water (Seattle)¬†2¬†(2010) 69-82
  • E.C. Fuchs, P. Baroni, B. Bitschnau, L. Noirez,¬†Two-Dimensional Neutron Scattering in a Floating Heavy Water Bridge,¬†J. Phys.¬†D: Appl. Phys¬†43¬†(2010) 105502 (5pp)
  • J. Woisetschl√§ger, K. Gatterer, E.C. Fuchs,¬†Experiments in a Floating Water Bridge,¬†Exp. Fluids¬†48¬†(2010) 121-131
  • E.C. Fuchs, B. Bitschnau, J. Woisetschl√§ger, E. Maier, B. Beuneu, J. Teixeira,¬†Neutron scattering of a Floating Heavy Water Bridge,¬†J. Phys.¬†D: Appl. Phys.¬†42¬†(2009) 065502-6
  • E.C. Fuchs, C. Sommer, F.P.Wenzl, B. Bitschnau, A.H. Paulitsch, A. M√ľhlanger, K. Gatterer,¬†Polyspectral white light emission from Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Tm3+ co-doped GdAl3(BO3)4 phosphors obtained by combustion synthesis,Materials Science and Engineering B¬†156¬†(2009) 73‚Äď78
  • E.C. Fuchs, K. Gatterer, G. Holler, J. Woisetschl√§ger,¬†Dynamics of the Floating Water Bridge,J. Phys.¬†D:Appl. Phys.¬†41¬†(2008) 185502-7
  • E.C. Fuchs, K. Gatterer,¬†Colour change of co-doped yttrium aluminium borate crystals under illumination with different white light sources,¬†Cent. Eur. J. Chem.¬†6(4) (2008) 497‚Äď504¬†(*)
  • M.A.S. Goher, B. Sodin, B. Bitschnau, E.C. Fuchs, F.A. Mautner,¬†Ladders, rings and cubes as structural motifs in three new zinc(II) azide complexes. Synthesis, spectral and structural characterization,¬†Polyhedron¬†27¬†(2008) 1423 - 1431
  • E.C. Fuchs, J. Woisetschl√§ger, K. Gatterer, E. Maier, R. Pecnik, G. Holler, H. Eisenk√∂lbl,¬†The floating water bridge,¬†J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys¬†40¬†(2007) 6112 - 6114
  • L. Brecker, D. Wicklein, H. Moll, E. C. Fuchs, W.-M. Becker, A. Petersen,¬†Structural and immunological properties of arabinogalactan polysaccharides from pollen of timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.),¬†Carbohydrate Research¬†340¬†(2005) 657-663
  • M. H. Bartl, E. C. Fuchs, K. Gatterer, H. P. Fritzer, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini,¬†Spectroscopic and Crystal Field Investigation of Kramers-Ions: Nd3+:YAB - a Case Study of the Crystal Field Structure of the 4I9/2 Ground State,J. Solid State Chem.¬†167¬†(2002) 386-392

Research profiles

In the press

Press reports

  • Leeuwarder Courant (Okt 2019) Raadselwater
  • Leeuwarder Courant (Apr 2019) Nieuw Wetsus-lab onderzoek bliksem
  • De Volkskrant (Feb 2018) Fries onderzoek op de Zuidpool naar eigenaardig water
  • Leeuwarder Courant (Feb 2018) Bijzonder experiment met water op zuidpool
  • Die Presse (Apr 2016) Kann Wasser zugleich fest, fl√ľssig und gasf√∂rmig sein?
  • Leeuwarder Courant (Mar 2016) Waterbrug opent venster naar waterbatterij
  • Friesch Dagblad (Mar 2016) Wetsus-onderzoekers maken water met elektrische lading
  • De Telegraaf (Mar 2016) Wetenschappers maken milieuvriendelijk sop
  • Leeuwarder Courant (Sep 2014) Waarom is water essentieel voor het leven?
  • Leeuwarder Courant (Mar 2014) Van waterbrug naar computer
  • Science in Society (Summer 2013)
  • Leeuwarder Courant (Jul 2013) Waterbrug
  • Dagblad van het Noorden (Jul 2013) Waterbrug is nog een mysterie
  • Science to Sage (Dec 2012) Water Revolution
  • Leeuwarder Courant (Nov. 2012) Wetsus test waterbrug in ruimtevaartcentrifuge
  • Friesch Dagblad (Nov 2011) Bijzonder water in een zwevende waterbrug
  • Volkskrant (Nov 2011) Magische waterbrug bevat raar water
  • Wasser Biennale (2010) Eine kurze Geschichte √ľber die Wasserbr√ľcke
  • Salzburger Nachrichten (May 2010) Schwebende Wasserbr√ľcke nutzen
  • Pressebeilage "energy 2.09" (Sep 2009) Wenn Wasser schwebt und Strom reinigt
  • √Ėsterreichische Apothekerzeitung (3, Feb 2009, p 164f)
  • Corriere della Sera (28 Jun 2008) Un ponte d‚Äôaqua per capire la vita
  • Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau (Apr 2008) Br√ľcke aus Wasser
  • PM Magazin (Feb 2008) Wasser flie√üt nicht bergauf? Falsch!
  • ViA International (Jan 2008) Spin Doctors in Matters of H2O
  • Galileo (Nov 2007)
  • La Recherche (414, Dec 2007, p.12) Un pont d‚Äôeau suspendu
  • Science et Vie (Nov 2007) Un pont d‚Äôeau pure sur du vide
  • Wiedza i Zycie (Dec 2007) Wodne Niespodzianki
  • Die Presse (8 Nov 2007) Physik: Eine Br√ľcke aus H2O
  • Salzburger Nachrichten (10 Nov 2007)
  • Spektrum der Wissenschaft (1 Oct 2007)
  • VPRO Noorderlicht (Oct 2007)
  • Nature (Oct 2007) Water doesn‚Äôt mind the gap
  • NRC Handelsblad (Oct 2007) Duitse fyisci bouwen een brug van water tussen twee glazen
  • Neue Z√ľrcher Zeitung (7 Oct 2007)
  • Russky Newsweek (41, Oct 2007, p.52)
  • (28 Sep 2007)

Radio Reports

TV - Reports

  • Bayrischer Rundfunk, ("Faszination Wissen: Unser Wasser - tot oder lebendig?") broadcasted on March 27th 2008, 21:15
  • Channel 4, Yomiuri TV station ("Dream Vision") broadcasted on December 20th 2007 (Japan)
  • 3sat ("nano: Die schwebende Wasserbr√ľcke") broadcasted on December 18th¬†¬† ¬†2007, 19:30
  • ORF ("Newton: Die schwebende Wasserbr√ľcke") broadcasted on November 17th ¬†2007, 19:20, Repetition in "Highlights von 2007" on the 29th of December, 2007, 19:30
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