dr. C. Bode (Christina)

Associate Professor

About Me

Christina Bode works as assistant professor at the Department of Psychology, Health and Technology at the University of Twente and the Arthritis Centre Twente. Her research focuses on adaptation to chronic somatic disease from a self-regulation perspective with attention for life span issues and on the development of patient reported outcomes (PRO’s). Her focus on chronic fatigue in people with somatic conditions combines these lines of research and investigates them with innovative technology.


Rheumatoid Arthritis
Fatigue Of Materials
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Rheumatic Diseases


Schakel, W., Van Der Aa, H. P. A., Bode, C., Hulshof, C. T. J., Van Rens, G. H. M. B., & Van Nispen, R. M. A. (2018). The economic burden of visual impairment and comorbid fatigue: A cost-of-illness study (from a societal perspective). Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 59(5), 1916-1923. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.17-23224
Hewlett, S., Kirwan, J., Bode, C., Cramp, F., Carmona, L., Dures, E., ... Gossec, L. (2018). The revised Bristol Rheumatoid Arthritis Fatigue measures and the Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease scale: validation in six countries. Rheumatology, 57(2), 300-308. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kex370
Schakel, W., Bode, C., Van Der Aa, H. P. A., Hulshof, C. T. J., Bosmans, J. E., Van Rens, G. H. M. B., & Van Nispen, R. M. A. (2017). Exploring the patient perspective of fatigue in adults with visual impairment: A qualitative study. BMJ open, 7(8), [e015023]. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015023
Bode, C., Taal, E., Vonkeman, H. E., Ben Allouch, F., & Hohl, K. (2017). Blended interventions for fatigue self-management: is this the way patients and professionals like to go?. Poster session presented at Annual European Congress of Rheumatology 2017, Madrid, Spain.
Bode, C. (2016). De ziekte heb je samen. 2016(december), 18-19.
Other Contributions


  • Arends, R.Y., Bode, C., Taal, E., van de Laar, M.A.F.J. (in press). Goal management strategies and successful adaptation to arthritis. Patient Education and Counseling.
  • Bode, C. & Arends, R.Y. (to appear november 2013). Optimale ontwikkeling, persoonlijke doelen en zelfregulatie. In: E. Bohlmeijer, L. Bolier, G.J. Westerhof & J. Walburg. Handboek positieve psychologie. Theorie, onderzoek en toepassingen. Amsterdam: Boom.
  • Bode, C. & Jansen, H. (2013). Examining the Personal Experience of Aging Scale with the Three Step Test Interview. Methodology, 9(3), 96-103.
  • Arends, R.Y., Bode, C., Taal, E., van de Laar, M.A.F.J. (2013). A goal management intervention for polyarthritis patients: Rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders,14:239
  • Nikolaus, S., Bode, C., Taal, E., & van de Laar, M.A.F.J. (2013). Fatigue and factors related to fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review. Arthritis Care and Research, 65(7), 1128-1146.
  • Nikolaus, S., Bode, C., Taal, E., Oostveen , J. C.M., Glas C. A.W., & van de Laar, M.A.F.J. (2013). Calibration of a multidimensional item bank to measure fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology,66, 1175-1183.
  • Willems, L., Kwakkenbos, L., Bode, C., van den Hoogen, F. & van den Ende, C. (2013). Health care use and patients' perceptions on quality of care in systemic sclerosis. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology,31, S64-S70.
  • Bode, C. & Kwakkenbos, L. (2013). Volwassen zijn en ouder worden met een chronische ziekte. NVLE Venster, 33(2), 38-40.
  • Bode, C., Taal, E., van Gessel, L., Westerhof, G.J., & van de Laar, M.A.F.J. (2012). The experience of aging in patients with rheumatic diseases: Differences and similarities with the general population. Aging and Mental Health, 16(5), 666-672.
  • Nikolaus S., Bode C., Taal E., van de Laar M.A.F.J. (2012). Selection of items for a computer adaptive test to measure fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis – A Delphi approach. Quality of Life Research,21;863-872.
  • Nikolaus, S., Bode, C., Taal, E., van de Laar, M.A.F.J. (2012). Expert evaluations of fatigue questionnaires used in rheumatoid arthritis - A Delphi study among patients, nurses and rheumatologists in the Netherlands. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology,30;79-84.
  • Bode, C. (2011). Highlights of the Health Professional Scientific Programme on EULAR 2011. EULAR HP News,2,6. Voor de volledige presentatie volg deze link: Powerpoint Highlights Health
  • Nikolaus, S., Bode, C., Taal, E., van de Laar, M.A.F.J. (2012). Which dimensions of fatigue should be measured in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? – a Delphi study. Musculoskeletal Care,10;13-17.
  • Kupper, N.M., Schreurs, H., ten KloosterP.M., Bode, C., van Ameijden, E. J.C. (2011). Prevention for elderly people: Demand-oriented or problem-oriented? Health Policy,102,96-103.
  • Nikolaus S, Bode C, Taal E, van de Laar MAFJ (2011). Selection of items for a computer adaptive test to measure fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis – A Delphi approach. Quality of Life Research, DOI 10.1007/s11136-011-9982-8.
  • Bode, C., van der Heij, A., Taal, E. & van de Laar, M.A.F.J. (2010). Body-self unity and self-esteem in patients with rheumatic diseases. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 15(6), 672-684.
  • Nikolaus S, Bode C, Taal E, van de Laar MAFJ (2010). Four different patterns of fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis patients: results of a Q-sort study. Rheumatology, 49(11), 2191-2199.
  • Grootenhuis, M. & Bode, C. (2010). De Levensloop. In: A.A. Kaptein, J.B. Prins, E.H. Collette & R.L. Hulsman: Medische Psychologie (2de herziene druk), p.49-60. Houten: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum.
  • Bode, C. & Consoli, L. (red). (2010). Oud en jong - Verschillende generaties in Nederland. Nijmegen: Valkhof Pers. http://www.valkhofpers.nl/oud-en-jong
  • Nikolaus S, Bode C, Taal E, van de Laar MAFJ. New insights into the experience of fatigue among patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative study. Ann Rheum Dis 2010;69(5):895-897.
  • Bode, C., Taal, E., Emons, P.A.A., Galetzka, M., Rasker, J.J., & Van de Laar, M.A.F.J. (2008). Limited results of group self-management eductation for rheumatoid arthritis patients and their partners: explanations from the patient perspective. Clinical Rheumatology, 27, 1523-1528.
  • Bode, C., Thoolen, B.J., & De Ridder D.T.D. (2008). Het meten van proactieve copingvaardigheden. Psychometrische eigenschappen van de Utrechtse Proactieve Coping Competentie lijst (UPCC). Psychologie & Gezondheid, 36, 81-91.
  • Bergsma, A., Bode, C., Pouwels, M. & De Ridder D.T.D. (2008). Succesvol ouder worden. Amsterdam: Boom Uitgevers.
  • De Jong, E., Bode, C., & Brugmans, E. (2008). Voedsel en globalisering. De grenzen in zicht. Nijmegen: Valkhof Pers.
  • Bode, C., de Ridder, D.T.D., Kuijer, R.G, & Bensing, J.M. (2007). Effects of an intervention promoting proactive coping competencies in middle and late adulthood. The Gerontologist,47(1), 42-51.
  • Bode, C. & de Ridder, D.T.D. (2007). Investing in the future – identifying participants in an educational program for middle-aged and older adults. Health Education Research,22(4), 473-482.
  • Bode, C., Drossaert, C.H.C., & Dijkstra, E. (2007). Een verkennende studie naar de eigen beleving van het ouder worden onder Turkse en Hindostaans-Surinaamse ouderen in Den Haag. Epidemiologisch Bulletin, 42(2), 26-32.
  • Bode, C., de Ridder, D.T.D., Bensing, J.M. (2006). Preparing for aging: Development, feasibility and preliminary results of an educational program for midlife and older base don proactive coping theory. Patient Education and Counseling, 61, 272-278.
  • Motel-Klingebiel, A., Künemund, H., & Bode, C. (2005). Wohnen und Wohnumfeld älterer Menschen. In M. Kohli & H. Künemund (Eds.), Die zweite Lebenshälfte: Gesellschaftliche Lage und Partizipation im Spiegel des Alters-Survey 2., erw. Auflage (pp. 125-175). Wiebaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
  • Westerhof, G. J., & Bode, C. (2004). The personal meaning of individuality and relatedness: Gender differences in middle and late adulthood. In S. O. Daatland & S. Biggs. (Eds.) Ageing and Diversity. Multiple pathways in later life. (pp. 29 - 44). Bristol: Policy Press.
  • Timmer, E., Bode, C., & Dittmann-Kohli, F. (2003). Expectations of gains in the second half of life. A Study of personal conceptions of enrichment in a life span perspective. Aging and Society, 23, 3-24.
  • Bode, C. (2003). Individuality and relatedness in middle and late adulthood. A study of women and men in the Netherlands, East- and West-Germany.Enschede: PPI.
  • Westerhof, G. J., Dittmann-Kohli, F., & Bode, C. (2003). The Aging Paradox: Toward personal meaning in gerontological theory. In S. Biggs, A. Lowenstein & J. Hendricks (Eds.), The need for theory: Critical approaches to social gerontology. (pp. 127 - 143). Amityville, NY: Baywood.
  • Steverink, N., Westerhof, G.J., Bode, C., & Dittmann-Kohli, F. (2001). The personal experience of aging, individual resources, and subjective well-being. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 56, P364 - P373.
  • Bode, C., Westerhof, G.J. & Dittmann-Kohli, F. (2001). Selbstvorstellungen über Individualität und Verbundenheit in der zweiten Lebenshälfte. Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie, 34, 365-375.
  • Dittmann-Kohli, F., Bode, C., & Westerhof, G.J. (Eds.). (2001). Die zweite Lebenshälfte - Psychologische Perspektiven. Ergebnisse des Alters-Survey. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.

UT Research Information System


Current research projects

  • Goal-management in arthritis
  • Implementation of a computerized adaptive test for fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
  • Fatigue in patients with Scleroderma
  • Fatigue in patients with Osteoarthritis
  • The BRAF and RAID study - Cross-cultural validation of two Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs): Bristol RA Fatigue and RA Impact of Disease scales
  • Selecting relevant PROMIS item banks for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: an interview study
  • NVLE-Connect: creating a national network for health professionals for lupus, APS, scleroderma and MCTD
  • EULAR Taskforce: Patient education of people with inflammatory arthritis
  • Patient Participation: Reuma Research Partner Twente

Contact Details

Visiting Address

University of Twente
Faculty of Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Cubicus (building no. 41), room B 129
De Zul 10
7522NJ  Enschede
The Netherlands

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Mailing Address

University of Twente
Faculty of Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Cubicus  B 129
P.O. Box 217
7500 AE Enschede
The Netherlands