I love thinking that leads to understanding and action.


  • Chemistry

    • Procedure
    • Optical Microscopy
    • Phase Composition
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

    • Sample
    • Raman Spectroscopy
    • Molecule
    • Scanning Electron Microscopy
  • Medicine and Dentistry

    • Raman Spectrometry


Research interest: Development of optical spectroscopy and microscopy techniques for applications in biophysics and biomedics. 

A selection of highlights:

first to show Raman spectra of single cells (1990)

first to show Raman images of single cells (2003)

Realization and discovery of "easy CARS" (after A. Voroshilov)  that enabled CARS microscopy (1995-1997)

Developed a suite of optical single molecule techniques (imaging, FCS, multicolor FCS, super-resolution localization) for application in biophysics (2000-2010)

Initiative of light-harvesting bacterial protein based biomimicry and associated technology (2002-2010)

Developed Raman integrated with scanning electron microscopy technology (1995-now)

Developed spontaneous and coherent Raman methods (entire career)

Founder of the company Hybriscan Technologies B.V. (2009)

Hybriscan commercialized Raman for SEM, an integrated approach (2011)

Hybriscan commercialized an automated Raman instrument for clinical applications (2022)


Diagnostic Accuracy of Raman Spectroscopy Integrated With Polarized Light Microscopy for Calcium Pyrophosphate–Associated ArthritisArthritis care & research (E-pub ahead of print/First online). Niessink, T., Janssen, M., Giesen, T., Efdé, M. N., Comarniceanu, A. C., Otto, C. & Jansen, T. L.https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.25350Raman spectroscopic analysis of joint capsule calcification of the fingersClinical rheumatology, 43, 1783-1784 (E-pub ahead of print/First online). Jansen, T. L., Janssen, M., Otto, C., Vosters, J. L. G. & Niessink, T.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-024-06941-4The Prevalence of Titanium Dioxide Particles in Synovial Fluid Samples Drops after European Union BanGout, Urate, and Crystal Deposition Disease, 2(1), 45-51. Niessink, T., Janssen, M., Jansen, T. L. & Otto, C.https://doi.org/10.3390/gucdd2010004
Test characteristics of Raman spectroscopy integrated with polarized light microscopy for the diagnosis of acute gouty arthritisJoint bone spine, 90(6), Article 105611. Niessink, T., Giesen, T., Efdé, M., Comarniceanu, A., Janssen, M., Otto, C. & Jansen, T. L.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2023.105611Physical association of low density lipoprotein particles and extracellular vesicles unveiled by single particle analysisJournal of Extracellular Vesicles, 12(11), Article 12376. Lozano-Andrés, E., Enciso-Martinez, A., Gijsbers, A., Ridolfi, A., Van Niel, G., Libregts, S. F. W. M., Pinheiro, C., van Herwijnen, M. J. C., Hendrix, A., Brucale, M., Valle, F., Peters, P. J., Otto, C., Arkesteijn, G. J. A. & Wauben, M. H. M.https://doi.org/10.1002/jev2.12376Clinical image: synovitis of the metacarpophalangeal jointsAnnals of the rheumatic diseases, 82, Article 223290, 992-993 (E-pub ahead of print/First online). Weele, L. v. d., Niessink, T., Maas, M., Griot, P. D., Janssen, M., Otto, C., Jansen, T. L., Tas, S. W. & Vries, N. d.https://doi.org/10.1136/ard-2022-223290Calcium carbonates are novel positive birefringent crystals in synovial fluidClinical rheumatology, 42, 635-636. Niessink, T., Otto, C., Janssen, M. & Jansen, T. L.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-022-06441-3Raman hyperspectral imaging detects novel and combinations of crystals in synovial fluids of patients with a swollen jointJournal of raman spectroscopy, 54(1), 47-53. Niessink, T., Kuipers, C., Jong, B. Z. d., Lenferink, A. T. M., Janssen, M., Jansen, T. L. & Otto, C.https://doi.org/10.1002/jrs.6452
Physical association of low density lipoprotein particles and extracellular vesicles unveiled by single particle analysis. bioRxiv. Lozano-Andrés, E., Enciso-Martinez, A., Gijsbers, A., Libregts, S. F. W. M., Pinheiro, C., Niel, G. V., Hendrix, A., Peters, P. J., Otto, C., Arkesteijn, G. J. A. & Wauben, M. H. M.https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.08.31.506022Clinical Images: Detection of titanium dioxide particles by Raman spectroscopy in synovial fluid from a swollen ankleArthritis & rheumatology, 74(6), 1069-1069. Niessink, T., Ringoot, J., Janssen, M., Otto, C. & Jansen, T. L. T. A.https://doi.org/10.1002/art.42078Extracellular Vesicles: A New Source of Biomarkers in Pediatric Solid Tumors? A Systematic ReviewFrontiers in oncology, 12, Article 887210. Lak, N. S. M., van der Kooi, E. J., Enciso-Martinez, A., Lozano-Andrés, E., Otto, C., Wauben, M. H. M. & Tytgat, G. A. M.https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.887210
Fast and non-invasive Raman imaging of material distributions at interfaces. University of Twente. Nair, S.https://doi.org/10.3990/1.9789036553124Ultrasensitive Detection and in Situ Imaging of Analytes on Graphene Oxide Analogues Using Enhanced Raman SpectroscopyAnalytical chemistry, 93(38), 12966-12972. Nair, S., Gao, J., Otto, C., Duits, M. H. G. & Mugele, F.https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c02581Evaluation of the changes in human milk lipid composition and conformational state with Raman spectroscopy during a breastfeedBiomedical optics express, 12(7), 3934-3947. de Wolf, J. R., Lenferink, A., Lenferink, A., Otto, C. & Bosschaart, N.https://doi.org/10.1364/BOE.427646Publisher Correction: Organosilicon uptake by biological membranesCommunications Biology, 4(1), Article 813. Beekman, P., Enciso-Martinez, A., Pujari, S. P., Terstappen, L. W. M. M., Zuilhof, H., Le Gac, S. & Otto, C.https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02344-2Author Correction: Organosilicon uptake by biological membranesCommunications Biology, 4(1), Article 812. Beekman, P., Enciso-Martinez, A., Pujari, S. P., Terstappen, L. W. M. M., Zuilhof, H., Le Gac, S. & Otto, C.https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02338-0Organosilicon uptake by biological membranesCommunications Biology, 4(1), Article 704. Beekman, P., Enciso-Martinez, A., Pujari, S. P., Terstappen, L. W. M. M., Zuilhof, H. T., Le Gac, S. & Otto, C.https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02155-5PDMS Curing Inhibition on 3D-Printed Molds: Why? Also, How to Avoid It?Analytical chemistry, 93(19), 7180-7187. Venzac, B., Deng, S., Mahmoud, Z., Lenferink, A., Costa, A., Bray, F., Otto, C., Rolando, C. & Le Gac, S.https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c04944In-situ observation of reactive wettability alteration using algorithm-improved confocal Raman microscopyJournal of colloid and interface science, 584, 551-560. Nair, S., Gao, J., Otto, C., Duits, M. H. G. & Mugele, F.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.10.016Changes in human milk lipid composition and conformational state during a single breastfeedIn European Conferences on Biomedical Optics, ECBO 2021: Advances in Microscopic Imaging III, Article ETu2A.26. The Optical Society. de Wolf, J. R., Lenferink, A., Lenferink, A. T. M., Otto, C. & Bosschaart, N.https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2615815
EV trapping: Raman characterization of single tumor-derived extracellular vesicles. University of Twente. Enciso Martinez, A.https://doi.org/10.3990/1.9789036550192Cancer-ID: Toward identification of cancer by tumor-derived extracellular vesicles in bloodFrontiers in oncology, 10, Article 608. Rikkert, L. G., Beekman, P., Caro, J., Coumans, F. A. W., Enciso-Martinez, A., Jenster, G., Le Gac, S., Lee, W., van Leeuwen, T. G., Loozen, G. B., Nanou, A., Nieuwland, R., Offerhaus, H. L., Otto, C., Pegtel, D. M., Piontek, M. C., van der Pol, E., de Rond, L., Roos, W. H., … Terstappen, L. W. M. M.https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.00608Algorithm-improved high speed and non-invasive confocal Raman imaging of two-dimensional materialsNational Science Review, 7(3), 620-628. Nair, S., Gao, J., Yao, Q., Duits, M. H. G., Otto, C. & Mugele, F.https://doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwz177Label-free identification and chemical characterisation of single extracellular vesicles and lipoproteins by synchronous Rayleigh and Raman scatteringJournal of Extracellular Vesicles, 9(1), Article 1730134. Enciso-Martinez, A., Van Der Pol, E., Hau, C. M., Nieuwland, R., Van Leeuwen, T. G., Terstappen, L. W. M. M. & Otto, C.https://doi.org/10.1080/20013078.2020.1730134Classifying Raman Spectra of Extracellular Vesicles based on Convolutional Neural Networks for Prostate Cancer DetectionJournal of raman spectroscopy, 51(2), 293-300. Lee, W., Lenferink, A. T. M., Otto, C. & Offerhaus, H. L.https://doi.org/10.1002/jrs.5770

Research profiles

I enjoy teaching

Affiliated study programs

Courses academic year 2022/2023

Courses in the current academic year are added at the moment they are finalised in the Osiris system. Therefore it is possible that the list is not yet complete for the whole academic year.

Raman-based diagnostics

Biomolecular distributions in cells

Enzyme activity in cells with Resonance Raman spectroscopy and imaging


University of Twente

Carré (building no. 15), room C4427
Hallenweg 23
7522 NH Enschede

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