The Netherlands Railways (NS) is the main railway operator in The Netherlands, having the exclusive right to operate passenger trains on the Dutch Main Railway Network until 2025. Together with ProRail (in charge of the railway infrastructure in the Netherlands), they need to provide reliable and safe train services in the Netherlands. Due to the unexpected preservation and expansion of the student travel card in 2014 as well as the failed introduction of the V250 (“Fyra train”), the NS expects rolling stock shortages as of late 2016 and ordered new rolling stock. Implementing new rolling stock without (major) disruptions for the railway passengers requires a “smooth introduction”.
But what does it take to ensure a smooth introduction? Past introductions of rolling stock showed that despite the many preparations, there were shortcomings resulting in unreliable train services. For example: The mechanics were not trained sufficiently to maintain the new rolling stock resulting in long lead times of repairs and long-term dependency on the supplier. Machinists were unfamiliar with the new rolling stock, resulting in many errors when operating the new train.