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An enthusiastic, open-minded engineer who completed his PhD on plasma-enhanced catalytic ammonia synthesis at the University of Twente in 2022. Graduated from the University of Twente (MSc Chemical & Process Engineering). Currently working at Koolen Industries as Technology Expert Power-to-X and Technology Manager at the Ammonia Energy Association, and visiting researcher at the University of Twente.


  • Chemical Engineering

    • Ammonia
    • Ammonia Synthesis
    • Nitrogen
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
  • Chemistry

    • Plasma
    • Procedure
    • Energy


Plasma-enhanced catalytic ammonia synthesis

Ammonia may be one of the energy carriers for the hydrogen economy. However, the activation of dinitrogen is difficult and the conventional ammonia synthesis occurs high temperatures and high pressures (400-500°C and 100-450 bar). Therefore, alternative technologies are studied, especially for small-scale, on-demand applications.

Plasma-enhanced catalysis is an emerging technology to overcome scaling relations in heterogeneous catalysis. The bond in dinitrogen can be activated by a plasma, allowing for milder ammonia synthesis conditions. However, plasma-catalyst interactions are complex and not well understood. In the current study, plasma-enhanced catalytic ammonia synthesis is studied from the catalysis perspective.


Effects of emissions caps on the costs and feasibility of low-carbon hydrogen in the European ammonia industryNature communications, 15, Article 3753 (E-pub ahead of print/First online). Mingolla, S., Gabrielli, P., Manzotti, A., Robson, M. J., Rouwenhorst, K. H. R., Ciucci, F., Sansavini, G., Klemun, M. M. & Lu, Z.https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-024-48145-zAmmonia combustion and emissions in practical applications: A reviewCarbon Neutrality, 3, Article 13 (E-pub ahead of print/First online). Alnajideen, M., Shi, H., Northrop, W., Emberson, D., Kane, S., Czyzewski, P., Alnaeli, M., Mashruk, S., Rouwenhorst, K. H. R., Yu, C., Eckart, S. & Valera-Medina, A.https://doi.org/10.1007/s43979-024-00088-6Feasibility study of a small-scale fertilizer production facility based on plasma nitrogen fixationEnergy conversion and management, 302, Article 118124. Manaigo, F., Rouwenhorst, K. H. R., Bogaerts, A. & Snyders, R.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2024.118124Improving the energy yield of plasma-based NOX synthesis with in situ adsorptionReaction chemistry & engineering, 9, 528-531 (E-pub ahead of print/First online). Rouwenhorst, K. H. R., Tabak, S. & Lefferts, L.https://doi.org/10.1039/D3RE00593CClean Ammonia Roadmap. van 't Noordende, H., Tubben, G., Rouwenhorst, K. H. R. & Fruytier, M.Plasma-based conversions with in situ product removalPlasma processes and polymers, 21(1), Article 2200244. Rouwenhorst, K. H. R. & Lefferts, L.https://doi.org/10.1002/ppap.202200244Towards Sustainable Fertilizer Production: Cost Comparison of Flexible and Continuous Electrolytic Ammonia ProductionEnergy Proceedings, 41. Energy Proceedings. Mingolla, S., Rouwenhorst, K., Gabrielli, P., Sansavini, G., Klemun, M. M. & Lu, Z.https://doi.org/10.46855/energy-proceedings-10982
Correction: From the Birkeland-Eyde process towards energy-efficient plasma-based NO X synthesis: a techno-economic analysisEnergy & environmental science, 16(12), 6170-6173. Rouwenhorst, K. H. R., Jardali, F., Bogaerts, A. & Lefferts, L.https://doi.org/10.1039/D3EE90066E2023 Roadmap on ammonia as a carbon-free fuelJournal of Physics: Energy (E-pub ahead of print/First online). David, W. I. F., Agnew, G. D., Bañares-Alcántara, R., Barth, J., Hansen, J. B., Bréquigny, P., de Joannon, M., Fürstenberg Stott, S., Fürstenberg Stott, C., Guati-Rojo, A., Hatzell, M., MacFarlane, D. R., Makepeace, J. W., Mastorakos, E., Mauss, F., Medford, A. J., Mounaïm-Rousselle, C., Nowicki, D. A., Picciani, M. A., … Valera-Medina, A.https://doi.org/10.1088/2515-7655/ad0a3aLeveraging Green Ammonia for Resilient and Cost-Competitive Islanded Electricity Generation from Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic−Wind Farms: A Case Study in South AfricaEnergy & fuels, 37(18), 14383-14392. Sagel, V., Rouwenhorst, K. H. R. & Faria Albanese, J. A.https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.3c01950

Other contributions

Rouwenhorst, K.H.R., Van der Ham, A.G.J., Mul, G., Kersten, S.R.A., Power-to-Ammonia-to-Power (P2A2P) for Local Electricity Storage in 2025, NH3 Fuel Conference. Oral Presentation. (2018)

Research profiles


University of Twente

Horst Complex (building no. 20), room ME363
De Horst 2
7522 LW Enschede

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