I am a full professor of Cyber Security and Business Continuity at the University of Twente. I started my career at the Research and Documentation Centre (WODC) of the Ministry of Justice in 1981. I worked as a Senior Researcher at the Netherlands Institute for the Study of Criminality and Law Enforcement (NSCR ā€“ in Leiden) (1992-2000) and as an Associate professor at the Department Developmental Psychology - Utrecht University (2002-2008). I am a member of the Scientific Advisory Council (WAR) of the Dutch Defense Academy.Ā  I founded the Crime Science journal together with Pieter Hartel and was an associate-editor for 6 years (https://crimesciencejournal.springeropen.com/).


  • Psychology

    • Behavior
    • Children
    • Research
  • Computer Science

    • Attack
    • User
    • Malware
    • Attackers
  • Social Sciences

    • Crime


My research interests are in the field of (online) crime, fraud and aggression and various forms of (online) fraud risk behavior. My aim is to improve prevention and provide tools for law enforcement. Together with colleagues I work to develop interventions that will help to protect users against social engineering, crime victimization and to increase compliance.Ā 

My present research investigates the human factors of fraud and of cybercrime, more specifically in victimization, fraud, online disclosure and privacy issues. Why do users trust phishing emails or fraudsters?Ā  Why do they comply or not comply to safety rules, why do they disclose so easily personal information and how can they be helped to become more vigilant users in order to protect themselves?

Please visit my 'projects' page for recent projects.


Digital signatures: a tool to prevent and predict dishonesty?Mind and Society, 19(2), 257-285. Koning, L., Junger, M. & van Hoof, J.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11299-020-00237-1How effective are social engineering interventions? A meta-analysisInformation and Computer Security, 28(5), 801-830. Bullee, J.-W. & Junger, M.https://doi.org/10.1108/ICS-07-2019-0078Fraud against businesses both online and offline: Crime scripts, business characteristics, efforts, and benefitsCrime science, 9(1), Article 13. Junger, M., Wang, V. & Schlömer, M.https://doi.org/10.1186/s40163-020-00119-4Social engineering: digitale fraude en misleiding: een meta-analyse van studies naar de effectiviteit van interventiesJustitiĆ«le verkenningen, 46(2), 92-110. Bullee, J.-W. H. & Junger, M.Why would we get attacked? An analysis of attacker's aims behind DDoS attacksJournal of wireless mobile networks, ubiquitous computing, and dependable applications, 11(2), 3-22. Abhishta, A., van Heeswijk, W., Junger, M., Nieuwenhuis, L. J. M. & Joosten, R.https://doi.org/10.22667/JOWUA.2020.06.30.003Social engineeringIn The Palgrave Handbook of International Cybercrime and Cyberdeviance (pp. 849-875). Palgrave Macmillan. Bullée, J. W. & Junger, M.https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-78440-3_38A Note on Analysing the Attacker Aims Behind DDoS AttacksIn Intelligent Distributed Computing XIII, IDC 2019, Article Chapter 30 (pp. 255-265). Springer. Abhishta, A., Junger, M., Joosten, R. & Nieuwenhuis, L. J. M.https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-32258-8_30

Research profiles

1. Mastertrack Risico & Veiligheid in ICT & Cybercrime (in the Master Risico Management)

2. Cyber-crime Science in the Security 4TU master of Information Security.

3. I supervise a lot of theses.

Courses academic year 2023/2024

Courses in the current academic year are added at the moment they are finalised in the Osiris system. Therefore it is possible that the list is not yet complete for the whole academic year.

Courses academic year 2022/2023

Current projects

Looking at DDoS and Phishing

Aim: We study phishing campaigns and DDoS attacks in a first attempt to investigate whether there are relationships between these two phenomena. Collaboration: Team Hight-Tech Crime and the FraudHelpDesk Funding provided by Politie en Wetenschap Principal Investigator: M. Junger Together with Abhishta Start: January 2018

Nudging and Improved Form Design (NIFOD)

The aim of this study is to improve information quality on manure that farmers provide to the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy, via a so called ā€˜Aanvullende gegevensā€™ digital form. In the present study we propose a client-centred approach that focuses on prevention. It has two broad objectives: 1. Simplification and improvement of the form. The ā€˜Aanvullende gegevensā€™ digital form is somewhat complicated. A set of studies on how the form is filled out by farmers will lead to suggestions for form improvement. 2. Improvement of information quality. In a second part of the study we aim to improve the quality and veracity of the information. To increase honest behavior by farmers (or their representatives) when filling in the form, we will develop persuasive nudges (primes) that will increase honest reporting and decrease intentional fraud. Funding provided by Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy, RVO Principal Investigator: M. Junger Together with dr Joris van Hoof and Dr Erik Tews Start: January 2018

Pilot study to improve law enforcement of manure fraud.

Project: Assessing and Reducing fraud in manure declarations: Insights from behavioural and Earth Sciences data (ARIES) Principal Investigator: prof M. Junger Together with prof Zurita Funding by the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA).

SEcurity RequIrements for seriOUS apps - (SERIOUS)

With prof Hartel Funded by: NWO Duration: January 2015 until January 2021

Finished projects

Victims of cybercrime; pilotstudy

Together with Prof. dr ir T. de Vries, Prof. dr ir B.P. Veldkamp (University of Twente). Funded by Stichting Achmea Slachtoffer en Samenleving (SASS).

Prevention of child abuse: Randomized study on the effects of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with families at home (PCIT-HOME)

With: Dr. M. Abrahamse Funded by Kinderpostzegels.

Modus operandi: the influence of modern media (ICT, mobile phones) on ‘traditional crime’

With prof P. Hartel Funded by KLPD (former National Police)


Technology-supported Risk Estimation by Predictive Assessment of Socio-technical Security

Consortium, principal investigator: prof Hartel. Funded by the EU http://www.trespass-project.eu/

I wrote a blog on victims of crimeĀ on the SpringerOpen and BMC:


Please let me know your reaction.



University of Twente

Ravelijn (building no. 10), room 3333
Hallenweg 17
7522 NH Enschede

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