I received my PhD (2015) in Condensed Matter Physics & Nanotechnology from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and M.S./B.S. in Physics from the Autonomous University of Madrid. I obtained a JAE pre-doctoral Fellowship from CSIC to study during my PhD how the reduction of dimensionality affects the transport properties of organic and inorganic thermoelectric materials. During this period of time, I carried out scientific stays at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (New York, USA), the University of Bordeaux (France) and the University of California Berkeley (USA). In 2012, I participated in the 62nd Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting in Physics after qualifying in an international competition among young talent scientists. From 2016 to 2018, I became a postdoctoral researcher at Stanford University, studying two dimensional (2D) materials and devices based on them for thermal, electrical, and thermoelectric applications. From 2018 to 2021 I was a Tenure Track Assistant Professor at Twente University. Since December 2021, I became senior researcher (tenured) at the National Research Council of Spain (CSIC) with double affiliation to the University of Twente as Associate Professor. My line of research focuses on thermal management, energy harvesting, nano- and micro-scale thermometry and thermal sensing. For current research activities, please visit my group page: https://sites.google.com/view/munozlab/home


  • Material Science

    • Devices
    • Temperature
    • Thermal Conductivity
    • Thermoelectrics
    • Microscopy
  • Physics

    • Utilization
    • Nanoscale
  • Chemistry

    • Liquid Film


Intro video about my research: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aVPl4_Mqw5Q 

Research web-page: https://sites.google.com/view/munozlab/home 

Webinar for the Electronic Device Society (EDS)-IEEE on Heat dissipation in electronic devices:  https://vimeo.com/444856607/7b5fc06aee 

Research Topics:

  • Nanotechnology
  • Thermometry from nanoscale resolution to cm-scale (Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM), 3ω-method, Infra-red, Raman thermometry, electro-thermal platforms, etc.)
  • Development of micro- and nano-thermal devices for thermal management applications
  • Heat flux and temperature sensors
  • Fabrication and structural, thermal and electrical characterization of thermoelectric materials for energy harvesting applications


Multibridge VO2-Based Resistive Switching Devices in a Two-Terminal Configuration, Article 2300304. Gao, X., Roskamp, T. J., Swoboda, T. P. E., Marques do Rosário, C. M., Smink, S., Muñoz Rojo, M. & Hilgenkamp, H.https://doi.org/10.1002/aelm.202300304Spatially-Resolved Thermometry of Filamentary Nanoscale Hot Spots in TiO2 Resistive Random Access Memories to Address Device Variability, 5025-5031. Swoboda, T., Gao, X., Rosário, C. M. M., Hui, F., Zhu, K., Yuan, Y., Deshmukh, S., Köroǧlu, Ç., Pop, E., Lanza, M., Hilgenkamp, H. & Rojo, M. M.https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaelm.3c00782On the heat dissipation in micro-electronics and advanced thermal control devices. University of Twente. Swoboda, T. P. E.https://doi.org/10.3990/1.9789036557740Hybrid 2D–CMOS microchips for memristive applications, 57-62. Zhu, K., Pazos, S., Aguirre, F., Shen, Y., Yuan, Y., Zheng, W., Alharbi, O., Villena, M. A., Fang, B., Li, X., Milozzi, A., Farronato, M., Muñoz-Rojo, M., Wang, T., Li, R., Fariborzi, H., Roldan, J. B., Benstetter, G., Zhang, X., … Lanza, M.https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-023-05973-1Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Influencing the Dynamics of VO2 Mott Oscillators, Article 044028. Bohaichuk, S. M., Kumar, S., Islam, M., Muñoz Rojo, M., Williams, R. S., Pitner, G., Jeong, J., Samant, M. G., Parkin, S. S. P. & Pop, E.https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.19.044028Nanoscale temperature sensing of electronic devices with calibrated scanning thermal microscopy, 7139-7146. Swoboda, T., Wainstein, N., Deshmukh, S., Köroğlu, Ç., Gao, X., Lanza, M., Hilgenkamp, H., Pop, E., Yalon, E. & Muñoz Rojo, M.https://doi.org/10.1039/d3nr00343d
Ferrofluidic thermal switch in a magnetocaloric device, Article 103779. Klinar, K., Vozel, K., Swoboda, T., Sojer, T., Muñoz Rojo, M. & Kitanovski, A.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2022.103779
Thermal diode based on a multilayer structure of phase change materials, Article 012115. Swoboda, T., Klinar, K., Kitanovski, A. & Muñoz Rojo, M.https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/2116/1/012115Thermal rectification in multilayer phase change material structures for energy storage applications, Article 102843. Swoboda, T., Klinar, K., Abbasi, S., Brem, G., Kitanovski, A. & Muñoz Rojo, M.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102843Graphene-based electromechanical thermal switches, Article 035055. Chen, M. E., Rojo, M. M., Lian, F., Koeln, J., Sood, A., Bohaichuk, S. M., Neumann, C. M., Garrow, S. G., Goodson, K. E., Alleyne, A. G. & Pop, E.https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1583/abf08eSolid-state thermal control devices, Article 2000625. Swoboda, T., Klinar, K., Yalamarthy, A., Kitanovski, A. & Muñoz Rojo, M.https://doi.org/10.1002/aelm.202000625Fluidic and Mechanical Thermal Control Devices, Article 2000623. Klinar, K., Swoboda, T., Rojo, M. M. & Kitanovski, A.https://doi.org/10.1002/aelm.202000623Indirectly Heated Switch as a Platform for Nanosecond Probing of Phase Transition Properties in Chalcogenides, Article 9324993, 1298-1303. Wainstein, N., Ankonina, G., Swoboda, T. P. E., Muñoz Rojo, M., Kvatinsky, S. & Yalon, E.https://doi.org/10.1109/TED.2020.3048100
Toward a solid-state thermal diode for room-temperature magnetocaloric energy conversion, Article 234101. Klinar, K., Muñoz Rojo, M., Kutnjak, Z. & Kitanovski, A.https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0006120A Review on Principles and Applications of Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM), Article 1900892. Zhang, Y., Zhu, W., Hui, F., Lanza, M., Borca-Tasciuc, T. & Muñoz Rojo, M.https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201900892Localized Heating and Switching in MoTe2 -Based Resistive Memory Devices, 1461-1467. Datye, I., Muñoz Rojo, M., Yalon, E., Deshmukh, S., Mleczko, M. & Pop, E.https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b05272Monolithic mtesla-level magnetic induction by self-rolled-up membrane technology, Article eaay4508. Huang, W., Yang, Z., Kraman, M., Wang, Q., Muñoz Rojo, M., Yalamarthy, A., Chen, V., Lian, F., Ni, J., Liu, S., Yu, H., Sang, L., Michaels, J., Sievers, D., Eden, G., Braun, P., Chen, Q., Gong, S., Senesky, D., … Li, X.https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aay4508
Thermal conductivity of crystalline AlN and the influence of atomic-scale defects, Article 185105. Xu, R. L., Muñoz Rojo, M., Islam, S., Sood, A., Vareskic, B., Katre, A., Mingo, N., Goodson, K. E., Grace Xing, H., Jena, D. & Pop, E.https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5097172Highly efficient antimicrobial ceramics based on electrically charged interfaces, 39254-39262. Jiménez Reinosa, J., Muñoz Rojo, M., del Campo, A., Martin Gonzalez, M. & Francisco Fernández, J.https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b10690Localized Triggering of the Insulator-Metal Transition in VO2 Using a Single Carbon Nanotube, 11070-11077. M. Bohaichuk, S., Muñoz Rojo, M., Pitner, G., McClellan, C. J., Lian, F., Li, J., Jeong, J., Samant, M. G., Parkin, S. S. P., Wong, H. S. P. & Pop, E.https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.9b03397Ultrahigh thermal isolation across heterogeneously layered two-dimensional materials, Article eaax1325. Vaziri, S., Yalon, E., Muñoz Rojo, M., Suryavanshi, S. V., Zhang, H., McClellan, C. J., Bailey, C. S., Smithe, K. K. H., Gabourie, A. J., Chen, V., Deshmukh, S., Bendersky, L., Davydov, A. V. & Pop, E.https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax1325

Research profiles

I am involved in the following courses:


  • Engineering Thermodynamics 1 (2018/19 & 2019/20)
  • Engineering Thermodynamics 2 (2019)
  • Energy and Heat Transfer (2018)

Courses academic year 2023/2024

Courses in the current academic year are added at the moment they are finalised in the Osiris system. Therefore it is possible that the list is not yet complete for the whole academic year.

Courses academic year 2022/2023

Current projects

ENERGIES - Thermal Conduits for Energy Conversion and Management in Batteries

In the ENERGIES project, we will develop high thermally conducting fibers as thermal conduits for the temperature control of Li-ion batteries. To facilitate isothermal battery operation, fibers will be employed to efficiently transport the heat in- and out- of the batteries.

3S-ERA: Solid-State Semiconductors for Energy Recovery in Aircraft

Energy harvesting devices at minimum weight can significantly reduce fuel and CO2 emissions in many applications, like transport or industrial processes, contributing to the development of a more resilient and sustainable world. Thermoelectric materials, i.e. semiconductors that are able to convert heat into electricity, can contribute as a renewable solution to this goal. 3S-ERA will develop a technology that will enable the aeronautical application of thermoelectric materials to convert thermal energy into electrical energy, establishing the foundations to export this technology to other sectors.

Homeostatic Operation of Batteries (HOT)


Electronic devices have become an essential part of our daily life. However, heat dissipation limits their performance and lifetimes. Thermal management plays a key role in keeping the temperature of electro-thermal systems, like batteries, within their operating limits. Ever increasing charge-discharge rates and energy density in batteries have led to raise of heat management issues (e.g. thermal runaway) that jeopardize battery durability and safety. The HOT project will bring solid state thermal management to a new level by developing novel thermal conduits with ultra-high heat routing capabilities. These elements combined with an innovative control strategy will enable autonomous isothermal battery performance. Such approach will enhance battery capacity and lifetime, and thus become a key enabling technology for the integration of renewables in electrical grid using battery storage, e-mobility, and decentralized back-up energy storage.

News on utwente.nl

- New Science Advances publication in collaboration with Prof. Pop (Stanford University) and Prof. Li (University of Illinois).

- Read Dr. Miguel Muñoz Rojo recent Science Advances publication in collaboration with Prof. Pop group at Stanford University and its news (Stanford news & Nature) about it!

- Dr. Miguel Muñoz Rojo was invited to give a talk at the Center for Research in Biological Chemistry and Molecular Materials (CiQUS) 

Dr. Miguel Muñoz Rojo gave an invited presentation at 12th European School on Molecular Nanoscience

Phonons & Reindeer - Dr. Miguel Muñoz Rojo´s Experience at EUROTHERM - A biennial Conference on electro-thermal transport phenomena.


University of Twente

Horst Complex (building no. 20)
De Horst 2
7522 LW Enschede

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