prof.dr.ir. S. Vanapalli (Srini)

About Me

Srinivas Vanapalli’s  academic roots are from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras with a bachelor degree in Mechanical Engineering. He later received an electrical engineering  master’s degree (cum laude) from the University of Twente. He received his PhD title for 'High frequency operation and miniaturization aspects of cryocoolers' at UT, a major part of this work is carried out at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, USA.

Srini has a mix of industrial and academic experience and has worked so far in three continents. His research interest is cryogenics where disciplines thermodynamics, material sciences, fluid, and heat transfer meet. He received the 2019 Mulholland award for excellence in cryogenic engineering which is given to recognize significant achievement in a particular areas of cryogenics.

Srini leads the Applied Thermal Sciences lab within the Energy Materials and Systems cluster where his team explores fundamentals and applications of thermal sciences in both space and time domains. The core competence of his group is heat and mass transfer phenomena in the cryogenic temperature range from 200 K to 4 K.  His approach combines formulation of conceptual models, experiments, and numeric. The topics of his research are problem-driven and his team seek to solve grand societal challenges related to energy and life sciences.


For more info about Srinivas Vanapalli on the 'Featured Scientists' page, click below:




Heat Transfer
Engineering & Materials Science
Physics & Astronomy

Ancillary Activities

  • International Institute of Refrigeration
    International Institute of Refrigeration
  • Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Inc.
    Board member
  • Cryogenic Society of Europe
    Cryogenics Society of Europe



Cryocoolers: Joule-Thomson and Stirling type

Hydrogen liquefaction and storage: small scale hydrogen liquefiers and storage

Multiphase flow and heat transfer at low temperatures: imbibition of liquid nitrogen in porous media, cryogenic droplet evaporation physics, freeze concentration.

Stirling thermodynamics: Oscillating flow and heat transfer physics

Sublimation physics: Dry Ice (CO2) Leidenfrost layer dynamics, Schlieren imaging of density gradients around dry ice, dry ice sublimation in storage boxes, CO2 thermodynamic sublimation phase diagram for a binary mixture. 

Cryogenics in Applied Lifescience: Cryofixation of biomedical materials, frozen transport, & cryo-handling.

Technology development: Additive manufacturing, Micromachining



please see the home page of Applied Thermal Sciences lab





Zhang, Z., Joy, M. , & Vanapalli, S. (2024). Experimental and theoretical analysis of solute redistribution during a progressive freeze concentration process. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 152, Article 107288. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2024.107288
Spijkers, R. , & Vanapalli, S. (2023). Evaporation of liquid nitrogen in a microchannel: Progress on the investigation of the delay in boiling of liquid nitrogen in a capillary channel. 1-1. Poster session presented at 25th Cryogenic Engineering Conference and International Cryogenic Materials Conference, CEC/ICMC 2023, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States.
Zhang, Z., Kalter, M., Zhao, H. , & Vanapalli, S. (2023). Leidenfrost dynamics of a LN2 droplet inside an immiscible liquid pool. Poster session presented at 25th Cryogenic Engineering Conference and International Cryogenic Materials Conference, CEC/ICMC 2023, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States.
Purandare, A. , & Vanapalli, S. (2023). Leidenfrost dynamics of sublimating solid carbon dioxide disc elucidated using optical coherence tomography. Abstract from 15th Workshop on Droplet Impact Phenomena and Spray Investigations, DIPSI 2023, Bergamo, Italy.
Purandare, A., Verbruggen, W. , & Vanapalli, S. (2023). Sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide for varying ambient pressure and far-field concentration. Paper presented at 18th Netherlands Process Technology Symposium, NPS 2023, Enschede, Netherlands.
Purandare, A. , & Vanapalli, S. (Accepted/In press). A protocol for accurately calibrating thermocouples at cryogenic temperatures. In CEC-ICMC-2023 - Cryogenic Engineering Conference and International Cryogenic Materials Conference
Purandare, A. S. , & Vanapalli, S. (2023). Modelling and experiments of dry ice sublimation in an insulation box. In Proceedings of the 26th IIR International Congress of Refrigeration: Paris , France, August 21-25, 2023. (26 ed., pp. 302-308). (Refrigeration science and technology; No. 26).. https://doi.org/10.18462/iir.icr.2023.0393

UT Research Information System


What defines me as a teacher?

  • Experiment with better ways to achieve success
  • Value the students and respect them.
  • Inspire students by drawing parallels between the subject matter and students everyday experiences. Also walking through several examples.
  • Belief in mentoring students and showing them the path to learn themselves.
  • Provide thought provoking examples (not just a text book).

Affiliated Study Programmes



Courses Academic Year  2023/2024

Courses in the current academic year are added at the moment they are finalised in the Osiris system. Therefore it is possible that the list is not yet complete for the whole academic year.

Courses Academic Year  2022/2023


My research is supported by national, european funding agencies and industry. 

Funding entities: NWO-TTW, EU, TKI-HTSM, TKI-Energy, ZonMW, ESA & Air Liquide


What drives me as a scientist is the exciting wealth of knowledge and surprises I come across in my research, either in the lab or in discussions with my team. We built a little cryogenic fluids playground and often me and my students try things out of curiosity, very often transforming into serious multi-year projects. I believe in sharing this curiosity with the general public and to high-school students, with a hope to ignite the STEM flame in them. My outreach efforts were recognized recently by the MESA+ Dave Blank Outreach Award

In the press

News feature in Physicsworld (IOP publishing)

09 July 2020: Why insulated metals cool down faster than their bare counterparts


30 December 2019: Study of liquid-nitrogen droplets gives new insight into cryogenic spray-cooling



17 December 2019 UToday: Freeze!


August and October 2019 COLDFACTS issue (https://cryogenicsociety.org/cold_facts/)

News on utwente.nl

Contact Details

Visiting Address

University of Twente
Faculty of Science and Technology
Carré (building no. 15), room C2049
Hallenweg 21
7522NH  Enschede
The Netherlands

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Mailing Address

University of Twente
Faculty of Science and Technology
Carré  C2049
P.O. Box 217
7500 AE Enschede
The Netherlands

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